Senin, 26 Desember 2011

Laporan Lengkap Biologi Dasar - Cara Menggunakan Mikroskop [HOW TO USE MICROSCOPE]


Hm, ini adalah contoh laporan lengkap biologi dasar yang telah saya buat. Sebaiknya jangan asal Copy-Paste tapi perbaharui dan kembangkan isinya. saya memposting ini untuk dijadikan sebagai bahan referensi pembuatan laporan oleh praktikan lain. Teks berbahasa Inggris karena saya berasal dari ICP class. :D
SEMOGA BERMANFAAT. EXPLORE YOUR OWN WORDS AND YOUR MIND:D
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background
            I'm not showing my background in here because the containing of background is come from your own words. so explore your own words about your experiments.

B.     Purpose
Students skilled at using biological microscope with a fast and secure way to view the simple preparations.
C.    Benefit
a.      Students can learn how to use a microscope to see small objects that can not be seen by the eye.
b.      Students can understand and recognize the parts of microscope and their functions.
c.       Students can make simple preparations.


           














CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Microscope (Greek: small and micros = scopein = see) is a tool to see objects that are too small to see with the eyes roughly. The study of small objects by using this tool is called microscopy, and microscopic word means very small, not easily visible to the eye (Anonymous, 2011).
In a microscope capable of studying the development of living organisms are so small that can not be seen with the naked eye, so the microscope to make important contributions in the discovery of microorganisms and historical development of microbiology. These tiny organisms called microorganisms, or sometimes referred to as microbes, or microorganisms. Can be observed with a microscope. One of the inventors of the history of microbiology with a microscope was Antonie Van Leeuwenhook (1632-1723) Year 1675 Antonie make a microscope lens with a fairly good quality, with more piling up the lens so that he could observe the microorganisms contained in the stagnant rain water and water vase, also from sea water and materials inspection teeth. He calls the move objects with 'animalcule' (Anonymous, 2011).
Antonie van Leuwenhook develops the power of the lens (a simple light microscope) that increases the organism 100 to 300 times so as to observe a single microbial cell. Cells by light microscopy studies during the 1800s and early 1900s found many differences between the microbial cells with cells of higher organisms. Before the invention of electron microscopy, limited understanding of the structure of microbial structures that can be seen by light microscopy to image the anatomy of microbes is not known. Until now, electron microscopy is used to learn new things about the anatomy of microbes and cells of higher organisms (Ristiati, 2000:32).
 In the 19th century, construction began microscope improved, widely available and disseminated. Basic microbiological techniques needed to study the microorganisms that are found not develop before discovery of the microscope (Kusnadi, 2003:9).
The microscope has the components of the fragile glass, a lens and mirror. Avoid treatments that may conflict with those components. Do not degrade your macrometer when telescoped, to prevent possible conflict of the objective lens with a glass object (Tim Pengajar, 2011).
According to Ristiati (2000:32-34) about the microscope and its type. The microscope is an instrument of the most widely used and most useful in the laboratory microscopy. With the microscope magnification is obtained making it possible to observe organisms and structures that are not visible with the naked eye. The microscope allows magnification of the wide range of up to hundreds of thousands of times. They are:   
a. Microscope light field.
Bright field microscopy is used to enlarge the picture object that in the test, to determine the size, composition characteristics and motility of bacteria and other microbes. In bright field microscopy, the microscope field or area observed so brilliantly illuminated by the object being observed appears darker than the background. Greatest separation power magnification by a microscope is its ability to generate a different image of two adjacent objects. Separation power of a light microscope is determined by the wavelength of light and nature of the objective lens and condenser lens, known as numerical aperture (numerical aperture).
b. Dark Field Microscope
Objects that are observed in the microscope is brightly lit and highly visible against a dark field (dark background). The microscope used to view spirochaeta always like Treponemes (causes syphilis), Leptospires (leptospirosis). By holding some of the light beam enters the condenser; dark field ring light beams pass only on objects on a slide specimen in order to enter the objective. Because of that object (microbes) to be illuminated in the microscopic field that should be dark.

c. Fluorescence microscopy
Used fluorescence microscopy to observe the presence of microbes in mixed cultures or plant and animal tissues with special staining can produce a fluorescent image that can be easily observed. Fluorescence microscope using ultraviolet rays are not visible. Organism has been colored with a dye visible fluorescent light (fluoresce) if subjected to ultraviolet light.
Kind or type of microscope diverse, from simple, for the purposes of high school, up to sophisticated enough for research purposes. The main cirri of diversity, among others, of microscope one eyepiece (monocular) with the tube tilted upright, the use of two ocular (binocular) or three (trinokuler), the power of the lens is used, the source of light (using the lamp), it can even be installed cameras (camera or video) on a microscope trinokuler and can be connected to a TV monitor (Koesmaji, 2000:89-90).
According to the Anonymous (2011) the types of Microscopes are:
a. Light Microscope
Light microscope: "Having two types of objective and eyepiece lenses, the system works aided by the reflection of light that penetrates the object being observed and are able to magnify objects up to 1000 X shadow"
b. Binocular microscope
Binocular microscope (stereo) is able to clarify details of the surface of the object since the image obtained by the observer is the reflection of light falling on the surface of the object; achieve 30x magnification of the image object. "
c.    Electron Microscope
Electron microscope has a resolution power (the ability of different human eye) is very high (0.1 nm), capable of enlarging the shadow of the object up to a million times, the shadow of the object seen on the monitor screen.      
d.      Scanning Electron Microscope
    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used for the study of architectural details or cell surface structures and objects observed microorganisms in three dimensions.
CHAPTER III
OBSERVATION METHOD
A.    Place and Times
Day and Date       : Friday, November 11th 2011
Time                      : At 7.30 a.m until 09.30 a.m
Place                     : Biology Laboratory 3rd floor, State University of Makassar
B.     Tool and Materials
1.      Tools
a.       Tools provided by the laboratory
1)        Biology microscope
2)        Toolbox contains :
a)         Glass objects
b)        Glass cover
c)         Petri dish
d)        Tweezers
e)         Pipette hand
b.      Tools provided by the student
1)        New razor blade
2)        New flannel fabric
3)        Cotton cloth
4)        Sketch pad and pencil
5)        Toothpick
c.              Materials provided by the laboratory
1)        Distilled water
2)        Suction filter paper or paper
3)        Cotton

d.             Materials provided by students
1)        Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis)
2)        Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
3)        Leaves of pumpkin (Cucurbita mosadata)
4)        Red onion (Allium cepa)
C.    Work Procedure
1.         Prepared Microscope
1.1.       Put microscope on the desk right in front of you.
1.2.       Cleaned the microscope body with a flannel cloth. Never rub the lens with a cloth.
1.3.       Opened the toolbox, removed the petri dish contained glass objects and glass cover. Cleaned cloth body with cotton cloth or paper often.
1.4.       On top of your desk there was only a microscope, the box contents with equipment, guide books and records, materials for practical worked. Other excluded in other places that had been provided.
2.         Regulated the entry of light into the tubus
2.1.       Wrote the state of your lab room, where the direction of the light the more light (from the front, left or right). Pointed the microscope mirror to the source of light. Opened the diaphragm or rotary plate in the position of the hole was. Microscope without a condenser used a flat mirror. To used the microscope without a condenser concave mirror.
2.2.       Adjusted the position of the revolver so that the shortest objective lens facing the shirt dosage until a click.
2.3.       Lower tubus until the end of the objective with a table range 5-10 mm or tubus stocks fall maximum.
2.4.       Looked through the eyepiece with the left eye without squinted right (needed practice) will appear white circular field (battlefield desert). If the light was uneven; move the mirror until he explained a little flat. If too much glare, narrow aperture or hole in the plate. If the field was still vague field means less light came in, opened the diaphragm pairs of larger holes on the plate.
2.5.       Microscope ready for used to observated preparations.
3.         How to set the distance lens with a dosage.
3.1.       With hands rough or macrometer turned the regulator towards the masters of the finger, tubus down, distance objective with a smaller dosage table, did the opposite. What happened? Microscope other models that had tubus slanted or could not ride down, then the table that moved stocks up and down when macrometer and micrometer played.
3.2.       Put glass objects contained preparations mounted on the table such that the material preparations were observed in the middle of the hole table, glass objects with sengkeling flops so no rocking.
3.3.       Wrote the distance objective with a glass object was not more than 10 mm. If distance was loose, the arms rotate the micrometer down tubus while viewed from the side closer to the end objective glass objects up to a maximum of 5-10 mm.
3.4.       Telescoped through the eyepiece while the hands played macrometer tubus raise slowly. Observe field of view until a shadow. If tubus has been adopted, half round macrometer also appears a shadow, it means overlooked. Repeat again in (3.3.) if there were shadows but still vague, then the binoculars and hold while turning micrometer up or down until the clear shadow line or limitations.
3.5.       Investigated ocular (magnification how?) And objective (magnification how?). Calculated the enlargement of the shadow that you seen
3.6.       If you've observed, preparations removed.
4.         Created a simple preparation
Observated the cotton fiber / cotton.
4.1.       Took a glass object that has been cleaned.
4.2.       Used as drops of clear water or distilled water one drop in the middle
4.3.       With the tweezers, removed one fiber cotton or kapok and placed it in the middle of the water droplets
4.4.       The hand that holds the cover slip between the master finger with the forefinger on the opposite side or edge
4.5.       Side with cover glass on glass objects touched by droplets of water with a slope of 450 and then released so that appropriate cover water droplets. Excess water that seeps at the edge of the glass is absorbed by filter paper.
4.6.       Installed the preparations made at the table and observated preparations such as step 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5.
5.         Changed magnification
5.1.       If the observation was successful 4.6, 3.4 and 3.5, the shadow that appears to be brought up again. Position preparations or tubus did not touch.
5.2.       Rotated in such a manner until the objective lens longer or (strong) perpendicular to the table preparation and a click (seen enlargement) Binoculars
5.3.       Micrometer, rolling up to appear bigger shadow. Observated that there were shadows.
5.4.       If you failed to find a bigger shadow. Raise tubus by turned the opposite direction macrometer master finger. Turned back the revolver to position the objective lens was weak (short) in it was original position. Without changed the position of preparations, did the experiment again 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, go to 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, until it worked.
5.5.       Prior to observed other materials, raised the tubus. Removed the preparations that have been observed and cleaned the glass objects and glass cover.
5.6.       Created a new dosage according to a new step 4.1 to 4.6.
5.7.       At the end of a microscope, wrote the following:
a.       Preparations should not be stored on the counter preparations, should be excluded
b.      Preparations should be cleaned with wet filter paper or cotton cloth (glass object + glass cover). Store in a petri dish and put in gear box
c.       Cleaned the microscope body with a flannel cloth. Tubus lowered as low as possible
d.      Saved the microscope in the microscope box
e.       All equipment that has been used to clean with cotton cloth and stored in a box.
f.       Equipment it self was stored for used in subsequent activities.
g.      Residual material not be used again thrown in the trash that was available











CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A.                Result



























Biologycal Microscope

Biological Microscope
Notes   :
1.      Ocular lens
2.      Microscope tube
3.      Macrometer
4.      Micrometer
5.      Resolver
6.      Objective lens
7.      Arm microscope
8.      Table microscope
9.      Diaphragm
10.  Condenser
11.  Glass slips or mirror
12.  Leg microscope
13.  Joint inclination
14.  Table pincher















Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Comparable picture
                                                                    
                                                                    
                                                            Allium cepa

                                                                                        Comparable picture
                                                                      




Hibiscus tiliaceus

                                                                    Comparable picture
                                                                

Cucurbita mochata

Comparable picture








B.                 Discussion
Light microscope is an instrument that has certain parts, which consist of optical instruments used for observation of microscopic objects and transparent. Light microscopy has the advantage of saving on electricity usage. Light microscope can be differentiated into or monokuler biological microscope and stereo microscope or binoculars. In this experiment, we use a microscope in biology.
Biological microscope used for observation of thin transparent objects. Radiation is given from below with natural light or lamp. In this biological microscope eyepiece and generally have an objective lens with an objective magnification power of 4x, 10x, 40x, and 100 x.
Optical microscope components are:
a.         Microscope foot pedestal serves as a place of standing.
b.        Arm or hand, held when appointed.
c.         Mirror, a tool to capture and reflect light.
d.        Condenser regulator, raise and lower the condenser
e.         Condenser, a lens that collects light beam from the mirror into a hole preparation     table.
f.         The diaphragm, a tool that is closed and opened and the regulator amount of light entering the condenser.
g.        Preparation table, where lay the glass objects.
h.        Clamp or regulator where the dosage
i.          Mechanical activator, regulator layout object glass on the table.
j.          Hole preparation table, a hole in the middle of the table where the passage of light from stocks into the condenser continues to object glass objective lens.
k.        Macrometer, rude manager
l.          Micrometer, fine regulator.
m.      Tubus or eyepiece tube, at the top end there are ocular lenses.
n.        Revolver, attach the objective lens discs of various sizes.
o.        Objective lens serves to receive the shadow of the stocks and then raised him.
p.        Ocular lens of the objective function to receive the shadow and raised.
The materials were observed during practicum among others, hibiscus leaves, red onion, hibiscus leaves and pumpkin leaves. Magnification used is adjusted with the image quality obtained. The results of these materials is as follows:
1.             Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
Hibiscus flower is a complete flower. Observed in this leaf is a visible form of his cell between the cytoplasm with irregular nuclei.
2.             Red onion (Allium cepa)
Based on the experiment showed that onion cells arranged the meeting rapid. Inside the nucleus there is also the core. In addition, red onion cells also have cell walls. But in this observation seen some of the points which caused the closure of water samples with glass cover is poor.
3.             Leaves of hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Based on experiments showed that cells from hibiscus leaves and star-shaped there surrounding cytoplasm. Section showed the existence of epidermal ridge known as trichomes. The conclusion leaves have trichomes star spades.
4.             Leaves of pumpkin (Cucurbita mochata)
The characteristic morphology of the leaves of the pumpkin is large and rough surfaces are covered with fine hairs beneath the surface of the leaf. Part of these cells showed that there were cells that called with trichomes. Ocular lens cells showed that needle-shaped.

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